Paprika extract

Synomyns/Identifierspaprika
Paprika oleoresin
Capsanthin
Capsorubin
E 160c
INS No 160c(ii)
EINECS No. 207-364-1 (capsanthin); 207-425-2 (capsorubin)
CAS No. 465-42-9 (capsanthin); 470-38-2 (capsorubin)

The US also allows “paprika” as an approved exempt color, but the EU considers paprika a coloring foodstuff.

Physical Description
Paprika is a deep red, sweet, pungent powder from the ground, dried pod of mild capsicum (Capsicum annuum L.). Paprika oleoresin is the combination of flavor and coloring principles obtained from paprika via extraction, using one or a combination of the approved solvents which is eventually removed. Although a variety of colored compounds are known to be present, the major coloring principles of paprika oleoresin are capsanthin and capsorubin. Paprika is insoluble in water and glycerin and partially soluble in ethanol. Paprika naturally gives a reddish-orange hue.

Common Uses
Paprika is used to color meat products, confectionery, vegetable oils, snacks, surimi, seasonings, soups, sauces, salad dressings, marinades, processed cheese, bakery products, fruit preparations, convenient foods and canned goods. Its use as both a color and a spice overlap frequency.

Specifications
US FDA

JECFA

EU Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/2012

Codex Provisions
There are currently no Codex GSFA provisions for paprika extract.

Regulatory Approvals/Consumption Limits
USA: Paprika (21 CFR 73.340) and Paprika Oleoresin (21 CFR 73.345) are both approved for use in foods generally.

JECFA: Paprika extract: 0–1.5 mg/kg bw, expressed as total carotenoids (2014).

EU: ADI of 24 mg/kg bw/day or 1.7 mg carotenoids/kg bw/day for paprika extract (EFSA, 2015). Maximum levels of paprika extract (E 160c) have been defined in Annex II to Regulation IEC) No 1333/2008 on food additives.

Safety Assessment
Paprika is not genotoxic by weight of evidence analysis. The low acute oral toxicity of paprika is demonstrated by a LD50 that exceeds 11 g/kg in mice.

Safety Reviews
Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (2000: Geneva, Switzerland) Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants: fifty-fifth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. WHO technical report series; 901. Available online.

JECFA (2014). Evaluation of certain food additives: seventy-ninth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. WHO technical report series; no. 990. Available online.

EFSA ANS Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food), 2015. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of paprika extract (E 160c) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 2015;13(12):4320, 51 pp. Available online.

Full safety monograph, including references, available to IACM members or upon request.